What is a Reading Disorder
Reading disorders can be classified under language based delays and disorders because it represents an area of receptive language abilities which requires the integration of the basic core language skills.
Dyslexia is a learning disability that interferes with an individual’s ability to read and occasionally comprehend written text as well as difficulties with language processing abilities.
Not all reading disorders are dyslexia.
Dyslexia is mainly due to difficulties with word recognition. This may be due to poor phonological skills such as segmenting and blending sounds, poor sound-symbol correspondences, poor decoding skills, poor spelling, poor vocabulary, and poor sight word knowledge. Language deficits are typically in the areas of phonology and semantics.
Reading Comprehension Deficits
Also known as Specific Reading Comprehension Deficits occur when the individual reads successfully but is not able to comprehend the meaning of what they are reading. This may be due to a variety of things such as poor vocabulary knowledge, poor inferencing skills, inability to derive meaning from context, poor figurative language skills. Typically these individuals have deficits across all the domains of language except phonological skills.
- Common Signs and Symptoms of a Reading Disorder
- Avoidance or dislike of reading
- Difficulties sounding words out
- Difficulties associating letters with the sound they make
- Delayed speech and or language development
- Articulation deficits and pronunciation problems
- Difficulties rhyming words
- Slow when reading out loud
- Makes consistent errors in reading and spelling (ie. b/d confusion).
The treatment for reading based disorders will vary depending upon the specific elements which are found to be delayed. Combining several different treatment approaches is often the most effective because reading is a complex task that requires several different cognitive subskills. Many of these subskills are language based such as phonological processing skills, vocabulary skills and comprehension skills. Other subskills are cognitively based such as memory skills, visual processing skills, and attention based skills. Combining neurofeedback methods with memory based training and language based training results in the best treatment outcomes for reading disorders.